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CS 490 Information Systems Management

Table of Contents


  • Why are we building things.
  • A system consists of components
  • Ahmed Ibrahim: DC 2133 (Tuesday, Thursday after lecture)

The First System

For 4000 years, writing was the only information technnology

Data vs. Information

data: raw facts before organization into an understandable form

information: data that has been shaped into a meaningful and useful form for human beings

Business Transformation

  • automation and digitization
  • data-driven decision-making
  • enhanced customer engagement
  • improved collaboration and connectivity
  • disruption of traditional industries through new business models

Information Systems Management

What are we doing after we build a system.


  • Survival
  • Competitive advantages


Correct tech, tools, processes, people, networks

Problems with Manual reservations

  • Difficult to match passenger names to seats

  • Resulted in poorly managed inventory (i.e., seats on a fight)

    • Over-booking: dissatisfied customers
    • Under-booking: lost revenue
  • Aircraft with greater seating capacity and greater frequency of use on the horizon

    • More inventory and passengers to keep track of
  • Introduction of Sabre:

    • Reduced man power
    • American airlines - IBM
    • Remote terminals

Waves of Innovation

  • cut costs
  • generate revenue
  • business survival

Software Architecture

  • architecture (conceptual)
    • blueprint
    • implementation independent
  • infrastructure (physical)
    • implementation dependent
    • physical material

Reference Architecture

  • captures main components
  • high level abstraction
  • common vocabulary
  • comparative

Architectural Styles

  • broad perspective on how to structure our software application

  • Component-based

  • Layered

  • Pipes and filters

  • Microkernel

  • Client/server

  • Event-driven

  • Repository


  • tightly coupled
  • single large code base
  • less scalable

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

  • reusable and interoperable via service interfaces
  • common interface standards

Microservice Architecture

  • single-function modules with well-defined interfaces and actions
  • small teams own entire life cycle of the service
  • The term “micro” refers to the sizing of a service which must be #manageable by a single development team (5 to 10 developers).

Architecting A Solution

Three Tier

  • Presentation logic
  • Application logic
  • Data access logic & storage

Zero Client

No persistent storage, firmware loads OS into memory on power on.

  • cost-effective
  • low power consumption

Practice #3: A Weather Application

  • Many ways, most preferably the 3-tier system.
  • Hybrid, weather data on server, peer - to - peer other

How to Find a Solution

First ask, what have you tried already and why didn’t it work?

Revenue Model

Common Revenue Models:

  • Direct Sales – This model involves selling products or services directly to customers.
  • Advertising – Companies generate revenue by displaying advertisements to their customers.
  • Subscription – Customers pay a recurring fee (monthly, yearly) to access and use a product or service.
  • Freemium – This model offers a basic version of a product or service for free, but charges for additional features or premium versions.
  • Licensing or Royalties – Companies grant licenses to third parties to use their intellectual property (such as patents, trademarks, or copyrighted material) in exchange for royalties or licensing fees.
  • Affiliate Marketing – Companies earn a commission by promoting and selling other companies’ products or services through affiliate links or referral programs.
  • Data Sales – Companies collect and analyze data from their customers and sell or license the insights or anonymized data to other businesses or researchers

Revenue Model and Design

  • advertising requires placement of ads in GUI
  • subscriptions and subscriptions requires compelling premium features
  • data sales requires a scheme to collect data
  • rapid user acquisition requires scalability and iterations

Triton Wear

  • accelerometers and gyroscopes
    • stroke count, stroke rate, distance per stroke, and more
  • wearable device, mobile app, cloud infrastructure and analytics capability
  • User Interface
    • Coach dashboard
    • Athlete portal
    • Integration and API for extending features
  • simply and seamless
  • quick setup
  • engaging
  • lots of data
  • accurate, consistent, reliable
  • focusing on the skills rather than the timing to maximize performance
  • automated data visualization progression

External Factors

  • internet
  • global marketplace
  • micro-markets
  • business ecosystems
  • decapitalization
  • faster business cycles
  • accountability and transparency
  • rising risks of IT

Internal Forces

  • supply-push to demand-pull
    • respond to consumer demands and pull products
  • self-service
    • customers know what they want best
  • real-time working
    • responding fast to the customer demands
    • optimized as possible
  • anytime, anyplace information work
    • remote / hybrid / mobile computing
  • Outsourcing and strategic alliances
    • Use of IT to help manage work across the extended enterprise
  • Decease of hierarchy
    • Equal playing field with shared authority
    • Use of IT to facilitate information exchange

Strategies in the New Work Environment

  • leverage knowledge globally
  • organize for complexity
  • work electronically
  • handle continuous and discontinuous change

Management Hierarchy

  • Senior
    • Executive Support Systems
  • Middle Management
    • Management Information Systems (MIS)
    • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  • Operational Management
    • Transaction Processing Systems

Information Workers

  • Procedure-based
    • Efficiency focused
    • Easily measurable
  • Knowledge-based
    • Effectiveness
    • Harder to define

Software Examples

  • Database Management System (DBMS)
  • Document/file managment system (DMS)
  • Content management system (CMS)
    • Website support
  • Knowledge manager system
  • Customer relationship management (CRM)


  • Redundant array of independent disks. The OS thinks there is only one disk.
  • Data Striping: unit one goes here, unit two goes there, unit three goes here as if there’s one big disk; parallelism


Distributing data across at least 2 disks; each disk has different information.


Data is the same on all devices


Needs at least 4. Multiple groups of RAID 0s. Each group of disks gets different data.



At least 3. Stripping with parity. Parity means if a disk fails, the parity can be used to generate the disk that fails. Parity is just enough information to recover the failed disk given that the other disks are available.

Storage Area Network

  • Fibre Channel Switch
    • High performance to handle lots of data traffic
    • Like a router but for fibre optics and wi-fi routing
    • Wired connected to multiple RAID disks
  • Block-level storage
    • Hard drives appear as locally attached devices

Practical Exercise

500,000 TB storage capacity, Seagate 10TB drives. 0.7% annual failure rate (AFR)

Design for 99.99% availability.

  • redundancy, fault-tolerance, load balancing, regular maintenance

  • RAID 10 to tolerate drive failure

  • Distributed storage to increase reliability and availability

  • Hot swappable driver - can replace drivers while system is running

  • Mean Time Between Failure = 1 / annual fail rate

  • Mean Time to Repair = 1 / 365

Availability = Mean Time Between Failure / (MTBF + Mean Time To Repair)


  • Online backup (hot)
  • Instant, protects against at least one HD failure

Offline backup

  • Done end of day
  • Protect against complete failure


  • Full backups
  • Differential backups
    • alters existing backup
  • Incremental backups
    • Backup additions and alternations since the last incremental backup

Strategic Planning

  • Defining an organization’s direction
  • Allocation its resources to pursue this direction
  • Planning helps a business identify its goals however technology changes very fast
  • Strategic focus: 3-5 years (business processes) led by senior management
  • Tactical focus: 1-2 years (resource allocation and project selection) led by middle managers
  • Operational focus: 6-12 months (project management, budget) professionals

Why Planning Is So Difficult

  1. Alignment of strategic business Goals and systems plans
  2. Technologies are rapidly changing
  3. Companies need IT portfolios rather than projects
  4. Infrastructure development is difficult to fund
  5. Responsibility needs to be joint

Changing World of Planing

  • closest to the action
    • organizational edge
    • outside-in approach
  • strategic envelope
    • top management
    • set parameters
    • open and regulation communication

Eight Planning Techniques

  • Stages of growth
    • Early successes (adoption), Contagion, Control, Integration, Data administration, Maturity
    • assumes all organization are in the same stages in the same order
    • pro: roadmap. con: assumes all orgs go through same stages in same order
  • Critical success factor (CSFs)
    • few key areas that must go right
    • monitoring and building
    • pro: resource alignment
    • con: oversimplifying complex processes
  • Competitive Forces Model
    • Porter’s five force { threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalry }
    • pro: understanding competitive forces
    • con: fails to capture tech and societal shifts
  • Three Emerging Forces (Digitization, Globalization, Deregulation)
    • new business models
    • telecommunications and transportation
    • many industries
    • pro: anticipate major trends
    • con: overlook industry/region specific factors
  • Porter’s Value Chain Analysis
    • support activities { firm infrastructure, HR management, tech development, procurement }
    • primary activities { inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing & sales, service }
    • information as a source of value itself instead of as support
    • pro: value adding activity analysis
    • con: complex and time-consuming and does not capture intangibles
  • E-Business Value Matrix
    • new fundamentals { criticality to business = low, newness of idea = low }
    • operational excellence { high, low }
    • rational experimentation { low, high }
    • breakthrough strategy { high, high }
    • pro: identify opportunities for digital/online
    • con: no offline
  • Linkage Analysis Planning
    • Examines the links between organizations in order to create a strategy for utilizing electronic channels
    • pro: understand relationships
    • con: complex and overlooks internals
  • Scenario Planning
    • long-term thinking to prepare for various scenarios
    • explore forces that could cause different scenarios of the future to happen
    • time consuming and highly uncertain. Risk of bias
    • define decision problem and time frame
    • identify major known trends
    • identify driving uncertainties
    • construct scenarios
    • pro: long-term thinking, flexibility
    • con: time-consuming, uncertain, bias

Managing Corporate Information Resources

IT Infrastructure

  • Hardware
  • OS platform
  • Application platform
  • Data Management platform
  • Network platform
  • Internet platform
  • Service platform

Approaches to Manage

  • Cost-centric view: minimizing IT infrastructure
  • Service-Centric view: prioritize delivering reliable and high-quality IT services to meet user needs, focusing on service availability, performance monitoring, and incident response
  • Innovation-Centric View: firms leverage IT infrastructure for innovation, seeking competitive advantage and business growth
  • Risk-Centric view: risk management, robust security measures, disaster recovery
  • Agility-Centric view: flexibility to respond quickly
  • Data-Centric view: data-driven decision
  • User-Centric view: end-user prioritization

Value Chain Model

Multiple software systems for each part of the process: warehouse, operations, ordering, servicing, outbound / shipping

problem: integration between the systems

  • could not detect a small item is missing

  • system should analyze habits of suppliers, users, employees, customers.

  • suppliers and their suppliers, firm, distributors, customers

Enhancement through information systems

  • Automating and streamlining primary activities (production, delivery, customer service)
  • Optimizing support activities (procurement, logistics, human resources)
  • Gathering and analyzing customer data (develop new products that meet customers’ needs)
  • Improving communication and collaboration (with stakeholders to enhance experience)

Business Process (BP)

  • Collection of business functions related to each other
    • organization specific
    • specific business function or across many BF’s
  • example: billing process in a physician clinic
  • IBM business process software
  • cross-functional
    • order fulfillment process requires sales, accounting, manufacturing & production

Integration Tools

  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
    • Integration all areas of a company
    • Microsoft dynamics and vision
    • data accuracy and consistency
    • decision-making
    • improved collaboration
    • customer satisfaction
    • Data accuracy and consistency: no separate systems, reduces risk of errors
    • Better decision-making: realt-time
    • Improved collaboration: across different departments and locations
    • Increased customer satisfaction: better manage customer orders, inventory, and deliveries
  • Supply chain management system (SCM)
  • Customer relationship management systems (CRM)
  • Knowledge management systems (KMS)
    • Confluence

Haarslev Industry

  • Problem
    • business process integrations of acquired companies
    • global expansion
    • lack of consolidation of operations
    • Many ERP systems
    • Process driven operations
      • no streamlined system to allow this
  • Microsoft Dynamics
    • Global integration
    • Unified business processes
    • Enhanced process efficiency
    • Adoption of best practices (RapidValue)
    • Data Management
    • Documentation and Customization
    • Key components
      • Finance
      • Supply chain management
      • Sales
      • Customer Service
      • Marketing
      • Field Service
      • Business Central

To-Increase […Microsoft Dynamics]

  • Database management system (DBMS)
  • Cloud computing: scalability
  • data analytics: insights and reports
  • artificial intelligence: forecasting, automation, decision-making enhancements
  • Internet of things: collect real-time data
  • APIs: integration with other systems and services
  • Mobile: accessibility
  • Security

Information Systems Strategic Planning

Creating Video Games

  • Strategic planning is a process that involves defining an organization’s direction and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this direction
  • It involves setting goals, analyzing the competitive environment, creating a plan for achieving long-term success, putting it into action, and continually evaluating your process and its outcomes
  • Tim Hortons, quick coffee delivery and walk-through
  • McDonalds fully automated store

Customer Intimacy

  • know your customers really well
  • understanding customers’ needs, wants, preferences, and behaviours to anticipate before being asked

Operational Excellence

  • market is the total expenditure spent on a product or service
  • Strategic planning for operational excellence involves formulating and implementing a plan that aligns all operational activities with the organization’s strategic objectives

Competitive Advantage

  • unique strengths or capabilities
  • Strategic planning for competitive advantage refers to determining how your organization can best leverage its strengths and capabilities to gain the upper hand over its competitors
  • goal is sustainable

Stand-Out Firms

  • Stand-out form
    • Firms that do better are said to have a competitive advantage
    • Access to unique resource or they can use commonly available resource more efficiently

Strategic Planning Challenges

  • Technology comes outdated
  • technology initiatives align with their overall strategic objectives
  • agility and adaptable is required

Limitations of Traditional Strategy-Making

  • rigid long-term planning based on predictable trends (infeasible)
  • rapid tech changes and shifts in consumer behaviour make trends less predictable
  • failing to plan effectively potentially disrupts business operations or missed opportunities

Moore’s Law

  • transistors / microprocessor power / computing power doubles every 18 months
  • price of computing havens every 18 months

Sense and Respond

The “sense-and-respond” approach is a strategic approach that emphasizes agility, adaptability, and responsiveness to rapidly changing market conditions. Unlike traditional long-term planning, which relies on rigid strategies, the sense-and-respond approach focuses on continuous monitoring, sensing environmental changes, and quickly responding to them.

  • It emphasizes the importance of strategizing in areas where the action is most intense and speedy such as customer interactions and feedback, frontline operations, and market changes.

  • In the sense-and-respond approach, organizations actively gather data and information from various sources, which allows them to sense market trends, customer needs, and emerging opportunities or threats.

Microsoft and Sun/Java.

IBM in a Service-Oriented Architecture

  • flexibility to innovate and adapt processes as per business requirements, using a service-oriented architecture.
    • easy modification and reuse of system components
    • execution of changes to business rules and workflow redirection without extensive IT involvement
  • real-time tracking and measurement of process effectiveness, customizable, real-time alerts
  • process efficiencies
  • tracks key performance indicators (KPIs)
  • Aligning Processes with Planning - modelling and managing processes (e.g. customer service)
  • Strategic Decision Making - evidence-based approach (monitoring and analytics)
  • Operational Efficiency - identification of issues or gaps in processes (bottlenecks, redundancies, inefficiencies)
  • Agility and Change Management


  • 52,000 invoices needed to be processed from suppliers MANUALLY
  • Microsoft Power automate and AI builder automated workflow
    • Document processing AI model
    • three weeks
    • Automating for one supplier resulted in processing 1,100 invoices in three weeks; 300 hours saved
    • blueprint for other suppliers
  • Citizen Developer Program
    • empower employees to build business solutions
    • aim to increase innovation
  • Future plans
    • encouraging others to adopt similar solutions
    • enabling employees to focus on more critical tasks.

Tools for Business Analysis

  • Brainstorming, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats), Porter’s Competitive Forces Model, COPE analysis, PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological), STEER analysis (socio-cultural, technological, economic, ecological, regulatory), EPISTLE (environment, political, infomatic, social, technological, economic, legal)

SWOT Analysis

  • Objectives of the business

Porter’s five force

  • { threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalry }

VC Benchmarking

  • Compare VC or investments to industry benchmarks or standards
  • financial returns, investment strategy, portfolio composition, deal flow, and fund performance
  • evaluate success and effectiveness of VC firms in generating returns and to identify opportunities for improvement or best practices

Management Issues in Information Systems Development

  1. How does an org ensure that its IT resources support its business plan
  2. How does a systems project get authorized
    • stakeholders
    • project charter (objectives, scope, stakeholders, milestones, budget, and other key details)
  3. How to ensure compatibility and interoperability across different system development efforts
  4. How is a project controlled and reviewed

Systems Development

  • strategic alignment, effective communication, resource allocation, performance metrics, risk management

Baseline IT Plan

  • Based upon businesses multiyear strategic plan
  • Major IT initiatives
  • IT requirements

Steering Committee

  • Group of people responsible for making decisions and providing guidance on a specific project or initiative
  • Project initiative is aligned with the organization’s goals and objectives

Development Process

  • System Development Lifecycle (SDLC) (structured set of activities)
  • Goal: deliver high-quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations and is completed on time and within budget

System Process Descriptions

  • Products: outcomes
  • Roles: responsibilities of people involved
  • Pre and post conditions: conditions before starting and after a process is done

Traditional Waterfall Model

  • Separate and distinct phases of specification and development
  • lack of flexibility
    • rigid sequences of phases
  • limited customer involvement
    • initial requirements gathering does not involve customer
  • high risk of project failure
    • assumes all requirements can be defined at the beginning
  • lack of detection of defects
    • testing performed at later stages of the traditional model
  • limited visibility and feedback
    • limited visibility of progress until later stages
  • long development cycles
    • each phase needs to be completed before the next

When to use

  • requirements unlikely to change
  • stricter control and more predictable budget and timeframe (government)
  • multiple rules and regulations must be followed when working on a project (healthcare projects)
  • well-know tech stack
  • mission-critical applications

Incremental Development

  • Specification, development, and validation are interleaved

  • Customer value delivered with each increment

  • Rapid delivery

  • Variable requirements are easy to accomodate

  • Process not visible, regular deliverables required

  • System structure degrades with each increment unless refactored

  • Useful for loosely coupled parts such as microservice or web services

  • Unclear business needs

  • R&D or introduction of new product

  • Quick and early working software

  • Flexible

  • Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration

  • Easier to control risk

  • Not all requirements are gathered up front, leading to system architecture affecting problems

  • Pressure on user engagement

  • Feature creep: product requirements increase during development beyond expected initially

Project Kickoff

  • Requirements
    • Gathering
    • Analysis
    • Specification (documenting)
    • Evaluation (validation) -> re-evaluate (analysis)

A requirement is a simple statement of what the system must do or what characteristics does it have. Requirements will describe

  • business requirements

  • user requirements

    • what does the user expect the system to be able to perform
    • tasks integral to business’ operations
  • functional requirements (what software should do)

  • non-functional requirements or quality attributes (system characteristics)

System & Software Design

  • System’s Architecture
    • high-level roadmap
    • relationships between requirements and its components
    • must be regularly updated
    • specific design decisions and priorities can be made within this framework
  • System Design
    • Identify design goals
    • System decomposition
    • Hardware/Software mapping
    • Persistent Data Management
    • Version Control
  • System Decomposition
    • Top-down representation breaking down complex functions

Development Methodologies

  • Structured
    • system is a set of processes
    • processes accept inputs and outputs
    • processes interact with data stores
  • Object-Oriented
    • Collection of interacting objects

Software Testing Goals

  • Validation
  • Demonstrate software meets requirements
  • Defect discovery

Software Testing Strategies

  • Glass-box or white box testing
    • Can see internal, try running all lines
  • Black-box testing
    • Can’t see the internal structure
  • Gray-box testing
    • Tester has partial knowledge of internal workings
    • Access to some internal details such as architecture, database structure or specific code segments

Software Testing Types

  • Unit testing
    • testing individual components in isolation
  • Module testing
    • test module according to requirements
  • Integration testing
    • combine modules and group testing
    • expose faults between integrated components
  • System testing
    • test entire thing as per requirements
  • User acceptance testing
    • final testing for release done by customer

Why do Systems Fail

  • Missing or Wrong or impossible requirements
  • Fault design/code
  • Improperly implemented design
  • Want to fix errors sooner in process of (requirements, design, coding, development testing, acceptance testing, operation)

Development Management

A project is an effort to reach a specific goal by completing a unique set of interconnected tasks and making good use of resources

unique purpose, temporary, requires resources, involve uncertainty


  • collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life of a project from its beginning to its end for a project
  • tangible and verifiable products of work

Project Lifecycle

  1. Project initiation: define project charter (objective & scope)
  2. Planning
    • work breakdown structure
    • time estimate for each task
    • cost estimate for each task
    • Graphically portray activities in network diagram
    • Calculate schedule and budget
  3. Execute
  4. Close

Project Planning

  • Time-consuming
  • Revised regularly
  • Various plans developed to support master project plan

Common Types of Plans (FYI)

  • Quality plan
  • Validation plan
  • Configuration management plan
  • Self development plan
  • Risk management plan
  • Communication plan

Project Constraints

  • Schedule, budget, resources (triangle)
  • Estimate: (optimistic + 4 * realistic + pessimistic) / 6
    • Top-down macro (analogy, or math)
    • Bottom-up micro (guess cost of the work breakdown)
  • Critical path is the longest amount of time it will take to complete the project

Monitoring and Control

  • baseline plan
  • monitor progress
  • measure actual progress and compare it to planned progress
  • take corrective action(s) if the project is behind schedule, overrunning the budget

Metrics Classification

  • product metrics
    • software product characteristics
    • size and complexity o the system
    • quality and reliability of the system
    • lines of code, FP, meat time to failure, number of errors
  • process metrics
    • system development process characteristics
    • processes, techniqes, tools (lead time, defect rate, productivity, compliance, cost variance)

Cumulative Budgets and Actual Cost

Keep track with a graph

Project Closure

  • Handover deliverables to customer
  • Pass the project documentation to the business
  • Cancel supplier contracts
  • Release staff and equipment
  • Inform stakeholders of the closure of the project

Types of Dependency

  • Finish to start
    • predecessor must finish
  • Finish to finish
    • cannot finish until previous finishes
  • start to start
    • cannot start until other starts
  • start to finish
    • cannot finish until other has started

Managing Information Security

  • Protecting data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction.
  • Integrity: accurate and reliable and authorization
  • Availability: information is accessible by authorized individuals
  • Confidentiality: protection from the unauthorized
  • Protecting intellectual property, sensitive customer data, and internal communication are vital for maintaining trust, compliance, competitive advantage, and ultimately, business survival.

What is Information Security?

  • Information security aims to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data in all its forms.
  • Another crucial objective is ensuring Business Continuity (the ability of the organization to continue operations even in the event of security breaches or disasters).

Security Threats

  • Software attacks like computer viruses, computer worms, malware, and ransomware

    • Trojan: appears to be legitimate and not harmful but then does something unexpected (downloaded malicious file)
    • Worms: replicate copies, standalone, do not need host program or human help to activate or propogate
  • Identity theft

    • fraudulent acquisition and use of another’s private information
    • phishing
    • data breaches
    • Website spoofing: Man in the middle attack (certificate not valid)
    • DNS Spoofing
  • Intellectual property (IP) theft

    • underlying tech
  • Sabotage, information extortion, or equipment theft

  • Ransomware

    • Sobeys hit with Black Basta
  • Advanced persistent threats (APTs) involve long-term targeted attacks on specific organizations.

  • Internet of things (IoT) creates new vulnerabilities, cloud storage

Security Management

  • Personnel security: authorization
    • ensuring that only authorized individuals can access an organization’s sensitive information and systems.
    • background checks, security awareness training
    • humans can be the weakest link
  • Application security: fixing security vulnerabilities
    • vulnerability scanning, code review, and penetration testing
  • Operating system (OS) security: protect the OS
    • anti-virus
    • updating
    • OS is the backbone
  • Network security: prevent and monitor misuse of network
    • intrusion, modification, destruction, or unauthorized access.
  • Web services security: protocols and encryption
    • secure communication
  • Facility security: physical security of the premises
    • surveillance systems, secure access controls, and alarm systems.
    • often overlooked


  • Setting strict standards for data protection similar to PIPEDA
    • regular audits
    • encryption
    • robust disaster recovery
  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • Regular updates
  • Action
  • Support

Five Pillars

  • Authentication
    • verify user
  • Identification
    • Granting appropriate access
    • Web cookie: read only be webserver for domain issuer
      • Session: browser’s temporary subfolder
      • Persistent: permanent in browser’s subfolder
      • First party: site visits
      • Third party: come from website you aren’t visiting (advertisements usually)
  • Privacy
  • Integrity
    • Ensure trustworthiness of data (consistent, accurate, unaltered)
    • Checksum (hash functions, message digests) fixed-size, unique output values from input data of any size
      • verify integrity and authenticity of data by detecting any changes or tampering
  • Non-repudiation
    • Ensure that no party can deny that their signature is on sent/received data
    • provides assurance
    • Digital signature
      • cryptographic mechnism
      • ensure sender is verified
      • public-key cryptography
        • private key used to sign, public key verifies
        • only sender can use the private key
      • Symmetric (SKE) vs. Asymmetric
        • Symmetric: same key is used for encrypting and decrypting
        • Asymmetric: pair of private and public keys
          • often used for generating signatures
      • Digital cert
        • uses a trusted third party known as a certificate authority (CA).
        • CA generates an encrypted digital certificate containing owner identification information and a copy of the owner’s public key

Technical Countermeasures

  • hardware or software tools and techniques used to protect information and data from security threats
  • Firewalls, Encryption/Decryption, Steganography and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
  • Firewall
    • controls incoming and outgoing data transmissions
    • allows authorized communication and denies unauthorized access


  • Hides the existence of a message
    • Hiding data in graphic images or sound file
    • Concealed messages in tampered executable files
    • Pictures embedded in video material

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

  • VPN technology creates a secure and encrypted connection between a user’s device and the internet
  • route traffic through remote server operated by VPN provider
  • Need for inexpensive but secure connections between distant locations


  • internal network
  • centralized hub
  • secure platform where employees can access important company news, updates, policies, and procedures
  • repository for documents

Management Countermeasures

  • Computer Auditing, Computer Monitoring, and Economic Evaluation of Security Measures.
  • Balance security with business needs
  • Computer auditing
    • assess and inspect
    • verify system logs, access controls, and data integrity measures
    • reduces risks of data breaches
  • Computer Monitoring
    • within an organization’s network
    • detect any irregular behavior


  • Cyberattacks on USA Energy Grid (CNN)
  • DDoS attack on Los Angeles County and Salt Lake City
  • DDoS using botnet
  • Performing a Cybersecurity Audit of an Electric Power Transmission Systems Operator
  • Meta’s Threads App
    • Potential trade secrets lawsuit by Twitter

Economic Evaluation of Security Measures

  • balance between lost and cost to fix
  • assess direct costs (purchases) and indirect (employee training, downtimes)

RIsk Management


Information-Centric Decision Making

  • accurate, relevant, information and analytical tools to make decisions based on insights rather than intuition