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CS 490 Information Systems Management

Why are we building things.

System: components

Ahmed Ibrahim: DC 2133 (Tuesday, Thursday after lecture)

The First System

For 4000 years, writing was the only information technnology

Data vs. Information

data: raw facts before organization into an understandable form

information: data that has been shaped into a meaningful and useful form for human beings

Business Transformation

  • automation and digitization
  • data-driven decision-making
  • enhanced customer engagement
  • improved collaboration and connectivity
  • disruption of traditional industries through new business models

Information Systems Management

What are we doing after we build a system.


  • Survival
  • Competitive advantages


Correct tech, tools, processes, people, networks

Problems with Manual reservations

  • Difficult to match passenger names to seats

  • Resulted in poorly managed inventory (i.e., seats on a fight)

    • Over-booking: dissatisfied customers
    • Under-booking: lost revenue
  • Aircraft with greater seating capacity and greater frequency of use on the horizon

    • More inventory and passengers to keep track of
  • Introduction of Sabre:

    • Reduced man power
    • American airlines - IBM
    • Remote terminals

Waves of Innovation

  • cut costs
  • generate revenue
  • business survival

Software Architecture

  • architecture (conceptual)
    • blueprint
    • implementation independent
  • infrastructure (physical)
    • implementation dependent
    • physical material

Reference Architecture

  • captures main components
  • high level abstraction
  • common vocabulary
  • comparative

Architectural Styles

  • broad perspective on how to structure our software application

  • Component-based

  • Layered

  • Pipes and filters

  • Microkernel

  • Client/server

  • Event-driven

  • Repository


  • tightly coupled
  • single large code base
  • less scalable

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

  • reusable and interoperable via service interfaces
  • common interface standards

Microservice Architecture

  • single-function modules with well-defined interfaces and actions
  • small teams own entire life cycle of the service
  • The term “micro” refers to the sizing of a service which must be #manageable by a single development team (5 to 10 developers).

Architecting A Solution

Three Tier

  • Presentation logic
  • Application logic
  • Data access logic & storage

Zero Client

No persistent storage, firmware loads OS into memory on power on.

  • cost-effective
  • low power consumption

Practice #3: A Weather Application

  • Many ways, most preferably the 3-tier system.
  • Hybrid, weather data on server, peer - to - peer other

How to Find a Solution

First ask, what have you tried already and why didn’t it work?

Revenue Model

Common Revenue Models: • Direct Sales – This model involves selling products or services directly to customers. • Advertising – Companies generate revenue by displaying advertisements to their customers. • Subscription – Customers pay a recurring fee (monthly, yearly) to access and use a product or service.

Freemium – This model offers a basic version of a product or service for free, but charges for additional features or premium versions. • Licensing or Royalties – Companies grant licenses to third parties to use their intellectual property (such as patents, trademarks, or copyrighted material) in exchange for royalties or licensing fees. • Affiliate Marketing – Companies earn a commission by promoting and selling other companies’ products or services through affiliate links or referral programs. • Data Sales – Companies collect and analyze data from their customers and sell or license the insights or anonymized data to other businesses or researchers

Revenue Model and Design

  • advertising requires placement of ads in GUI
  • subscriptions and subscriptions requires compelling premium features
  • data sales requires a scheme to collect data
  • rapid user acquisition requires scalability and iterations

Internal Forces

  • supply-push to demand-pull
    • respond to consume demand and pull products
  • self-service
    • customers know what they want best
  • real-time working
    • responding fast to the customer demands
    • optimized as possible
  • anytime, anyplace information work
    • remote / hybrid / mobile computing
  • Outsourcing and strategic alliances
    • Use of IT to help manage work across the extended enterprise
  • Decease of hierarchy
    • Equal playing field with shared authority
    • Use of IT to facilitate information exchange


Redundant array of independent disks. The OS thinks there is only one disk.


Distributing data across at least 2 disks; each disk has different information.


Data is the same on all devices


Multiple groups of RAID 0s. Each group of disks gets different data.



At least 3. Stripping with parity. Parity means if a disk fails, the parity can be used to generate the disk that fails. Parity is just enough information to recover the failed disk given that the other disks are available.

Storage Area Network

  • Fibre Channel Switch
    • High performance to handle lots of data traffic
    • Like a router but for fibre optics and wi-fi routing
    • Wired connected to multiple RAID disks
  • Block-level storage
    • Hard drives appear as locally attached devices

Practical Exercise

500,000 TB storage capacity, Seagate 10TB drives. 0.7% annual failure rate (AFR)

Design for 99.99% availability.

  • redundancy, fault-tolerance, load balancing, regular maintenance
  • RAID 10 to tolerate drive failure
  • Distributed storage to increase reliability and availability
  • Hot swappable driver - can replace drivers while system is running

Availability: = Mean Time Between Failure / (MTBF + Mean Time To Repair)


  • Online backup (hot)
  • Instant, protects against at least one HD failure

Offline backup

  • Done end of day
  • Protect against complete failure


  • Full backups
  • Differential backups
    • alters existing backup
  • Incremental backups
    • Backup additions and alternations since the last incremental backup

Managing Corporate Information Resources

IT Infrastructure

  • Hardware
  • OS platform
  • Application platform
  • Data Management platform
  • Network platform
  • Internet platform
  • Service platform